JMIR Publications

JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

A multidisciplinary journal that focuses on the intersection of public health and technology, public health informatics, mass media campaigns, surveillance, participatory epidemiology, and innovation in public health practice and research.

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Journal Description

JMIR Public Health & Surveillance (JPHS, Editor-in-chief: Travis Sanchez, Emory University/Rollins School of Public Health) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the top cited journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175). JPH is a multidisciplinary journal with a unique focus on the intersection of innovation and technology in public health, and includes topics like health communication, public health informatics, surveillance, participatory epidemiology, infodemiology and infoveillance, digital disease detection, digital public health interventions, mass media/social media campaigns, and emerging population health analysis systems and tools. 

We publish regular articles, reviews, protocols/system descriptions and viewpoint papers on all aspects of public health, with a focus on innovation and technology in public health.

Apart from publishing traditional public health research and viewpoint papers as well as reports from traditional surveillance systems, JPH was one of the first (if not the only) peer-reviewed journal which publishes papers with surveillance or pharmacovigilance data from non-traditional, unstructured big data and text sources such as social media and the Internet (infoveillance, digital disease detection), or reports on novel participatory epidemiology projects, where observations are solicited from the public.  

Among other innovations, JPH is also dedicated to support rapid open data sharing and rapid open access to surveillance and outbreak data. As one of the novel features we plan to publish rapid or even real-time surveillance reports and open data. The methods and description of the surveillance system may be peer-reviewed and published only once in detail, in a  "baseline report" (in a JMIR Res Protoc or a JMIR Public Health & Surveill paper), and authors then have the possibility to publish data and reports in frequent intervals rapidly and with only minimal additional peer-review (we call this article type "Rapid Surveillance Reports"). JMIR Publications may even work with authors/researchers and developers of selected surveillance systems on APIs for semi-automated reports (e.g. weekly reports to be automatically published in JPHS and indexed in PubMed, based on data-feeds from surveillance systems and minmal narratives and abstracts).

Furthermore, duing epidemics and public health emergencies, submissions with critical data will be processed with expedited peer-review to enable publication within days or even in real-time.

We also publish descriptions of open data resources and open source software. Where possible, we can and want to publish or even host the actual software or dataset on the journal website.

 

Recent Articles:

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Free-Photos; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/cell-phone-phone-mobile-phone-1245663/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Twitter and Public Health (Part 1): How Individual Public Health Professionals Use Twitter for Professional Development

    Abstract:

    Background: The use of social networking sites is increasingly being adopted in public health, in part, because of the barriers to funding and reduced resources. Public health professionals are using social media platforms, specifically Twitter, as a way to facilitate professional development. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify public health professionals using Twitter and to analyze how they use this platform to enhance their formal and informal professional development within the context of public health. Methods: Keyword searches were conducted to identify and invite potential participants to complete a survey related to their use of Twitter for public health and professional experiences. Data regarding demographic attributes, Twitter usage, and qualitative information were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. Open-response survey questions were analyzed using the constant comparison method. Results: “Using Twitter makes it easier to expand my networking opportunities” and “I find Twitter useful for professional development” scored highest, with a mean score of 4.57 (standard deviation [SD] 0.74) and 4.43 (SD 0.76) on a 5-point Likert scale. Analysis of the qualitative data shows the emergence of the following themes for why public health professionals mostly use Twitter: (1) geography, (2) continuing education, (3) professional gain, and (4) communication. Conclusions: For public health professionals in this study, Twitter is a platform best used for their networking and professional development. Furthermore, the use of Twitter allows public health professionals to overcome a series of barriers and enhances opportunities for growth.

  • Influenzanet website (06/21/2017). Source: https://www.influenzanet.eu; Copyright: Influenzanet; URL: https://www.influenzanet.eu; License: Creative Commons Attribution + Noncommercial + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-NC-ND).

    Influenzanet: Citizens Among 10 Countries Collaborating to Monitor Influenza in Europe

    Abstract:

    Background: The wide availability of the Internet and the growth of digital communication technologies have become an important tool for epidemiological studies and health surveillance. Influenzanet is a participatory surveillance system monitoring the incidence of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Europe since 2003. It is based on data provided by volunteers who self-report their symptoms via the Internet throughout the influenza season and currently involves 10 countries. Objective: In this paper, we describe the Influenzanet system and provide an overview of results from several analyses that have been performed with the collected data, which include participant representativeness analyses, data validation (comparing ILI incidence rates between Influenzanet and sentinel medical practice networks), identification of ILI risk factors, and influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) studies previously published. Additionally, we present new VE analyses for the Netherlands, stratified by age and chronic illness and offer suggestions for further work and considerations on the continuity and sustainability of the participatory system. Methods: Influenzanet comprises country-specific websites where residents can register to become volunteers to support influenza surveillance and have access to influenza-related information. Participants are recruited through different communication channels. Following registration, volunteers submit an intake questionnaire with their postal code and sociodemographic and medical characteristics, after which they are invited to report their symptoms via a weekly electronic newsletter reminder. Several thousands of participants have been engaged yearly in Influenzanet, with over 36,000 volunteers in the 2015-16 season alone. Results: In summary, for some traits and in some countries (eg, influenza vaccination rates in the Netherlands), Influenzanet participants were representative of the general population. However, for other traits, they were not (eg, participants underrepresent the youngest and oldest age groups in 7 countries). The incidence of ILI in Influenzanet was found to be closely correlated although quantitatively higher than that obtained by the sentinel medical practice networks. Various risk factors for acquiring an ILI infection were identified. The VE studies performed with Influenzanet data suggest that this surveillance system could develop into a complementary tool to measure the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine, eventually in real time. Conclusions: Results from these analyses illustrate that Influenzanet has developed into a fast and flexible monitoring system that can complement the traditional influenza surveillance performed by sentinel medical practices. The uniformity of Influenzanet allows for direct comparison of ILI rates between countries. It also has the important advantage of yielding individual data, which can be used to identify risk factors. The way in which the Influenzanet system is constructed allows the collection of data that could be extended beyond those of ILI cases to monitor pandemic influenza and other common or emerging diseases.

  • Image of a network. Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Gerd Altmann; URL: https://pixabay.com/en/play-stone-network-networked-1237457/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Sample Size Calculations for Population Size Estimation Studies Using Multiplier Methods With Respondent-Driven Sampling Surveys

    Abstract:

    Background: While guidance exists for obtaining population size estimates using multiplier methods with respondent-driven sampling surveys, we lack specific guidance for making sample size decisions. Objective: To guide the design of multiplier method population size estimation studies using respondent-driven sampling surveys to reduce the random error around the estimate obtained. Methods: The population size estimate is obtained by dividing the number of individuals receiving a service or the number of unique objects distributed (M) by the proportion of individuals in a representative survey who report receipt of the service or object (P). We have developed an approach to sample size calculation, interpreting methods to estimate the variance around estimates obtained using multiplier methods in conjunction with research into design effects and respondent-driven sampling. We describe an application to estimate the number of female sex workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. Results: There is high variance in estimates. Random error around the size estimate reflects uncertainty from M and P, particularly when the estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey is low. As expected, sample size requirements are higher when the design effect of the survey is assumed to be greater. Conclusions: We suggest a method for investigating the effects of sample size on the precision of a population size estimate obtained using multipler methods and respondent-driven sampling. Uncertainty in the size estimate is high, particularly when P is small, so balancing against other potential sources of bias, we advise researchers to consider longer service attendance reference periods and to distribute more unique objects, which is likely to result in a higher estimate of P in the respondent-driven sampling survey.

  • Homepage of PrEP Locator (montage). Source: The Authors / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://publichealth.jmir.org/2017/3/e58/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Developing a Web-Based Geolocated Directory of HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis-Providing Clinics: The PrEP Locator Protocol and Operating Procedures

    Abstract:

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is highly effective in preventing HIV transmission, yet patients interested in learning more about PrEP or in getting a PrEP prescription may not be able to find local medical providers willing to prescribe PrEP. Objective: We sought to create a national database of PrEP-providing clinics to allow for patients to have access to a unified, vetted source of PrEP providers in an easily accessible database. Methods: To develop the protocol and operating procedures for the PrEP Locator, we conducted a series of 7 key informant interviews with experts who had organized PrEP or other HIV service directories. We convened an external advisory committee and a collaborators board to gain expert and community-situated perspectives. Results: At its public release in September 2016, the database included 1,272 PrEP-providing clinics, including clinics in all 50 states and in Puerto Rico. Web searches, referrals, and outreach to state health departments identified 58 unique lists of PrEP-providing clinics, with 33 from state health departments, 6 from government localities, 2 from professional medical organizations, and 19 from nongovernmental organizations. Out of the 2,420 clinics identified from the lists and Web searches, we removed 798 as duplicate entries, and we determined that 350 were ineligible for listing. The most common reasons for ineligibility were not having the appropriate medical licensure to prescribe PrEP (67/350) or not prescribing PrEP, based on self-report (192/350). Key informant interviews shaped important protocol decisions, such as listing clinics instead of individual clinicians as the primary data element and streamlining data collection to facilitate scalability. We developed a Web interface to provide public access to the data, with geolocated data display, search filter functionality, a webform for public suggestions of new clinics, and a publicly available directory Web tool that can be embedded in websites. In the 6 months following release, preplocator.org and hosting websites had received over 35,000 unique views and 300 clinic additions, and 5 websites had initiated hosting of the widget. Conclusions: Directories exist for many preventive and treatment services. As new medical applications become available, there will be a corresponding need to develop new directories for service provision. Geolocated directories can assist patients in accessing care and have the potential to increase demand for and access to newer, more efficacious medical interventions. Early choices in the development of service directories have long-lasting impact, because once data collection begins, it can be challenging to reverse course. The PrEP Locator protocol may inform early decisions in the development of future service directories. Additionally, the case study on developing the PrEP Locator demonstrates the importance of formative work in identifying service-specific factors that can guide decisions on directory development.

  • 3D graphical representation of a generic Influenza virion’s ultrastructure. Source: CDC / Douglas Jordan; Copyright: Dan Higgins; URL: https://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp?pid=11823; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Evaluation of Sampling Recommendations From the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap for Idaho

    Abstract:

    Background: The Right Size Roadmap was developed by the Association of Public Health Laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to improve influenza virologic surveillance efficiency. Guidelines were provided to state health departments regarding representativeness and statistical estimates of specimen numbers needed for seasonal influenza situational awareness, rare or novel influenza virus detection, and rare or novel influenza virus investigation. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare Roadmap sampling recommendations with Idaho’s influenza virologic surveillance to determine implementation feasibility. Methods: We calculated the proportion of medically attended influenza-like illness (MA-ILI) from Idaho’s influenza-like illness surveillance among outpatients during October 2008 to May 2014, applied data to Roadmap-provided sample size calculators, and compared calculations with actual numbers of specimens tested for influenza by the Idaho Bureau of Laboratories (IBL). We assessed representativeness among patients’ tested specimens to census estimates by age, sex, and health district residence. Results: Among outpatients surveilled, Idaho’s mean annual proportion of MA-ILI was 2.30% (20,834/905,818) during a 5-year period. Thus, according to Roadmap recommendations, Idaho needs to collect 128 specimens from MA-ILI patients/week for situational awareness, 1496 influenza-positive specimens/week for detection of a rare or novel influenza virus at 0.2% prevalence, and after detection, 478 specimens/week to confirm true prevalence is ≤2% of influenza-positive samples. The mean number of respiratory specimens Idaho tested for influenza/week, excluding the 2009-2010 influenza season, ranged from 6 to 24. Various influenza virus types and subtypes were collected and specimen submission sources were representative in terms of geographic distribution, patient age range and sex, and disease severity. Conclusions: Insufficient numbers of respiratory specimens are submitted to IBL for influenza laboratory testing. Increased specimen submission would facilitate meeting Roadmap sample size recommendations.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Free-Photos; URL: https://pixabay.com/de/laptop-h%C3%A4nde-computer-technologie-1149412/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Effectivity of Awareness Months in Increasing Internet Search Activity for Top Malignancies Among Women

    Abstract:

    Dear Editor, We read with great interest, the recent article by Ling et al. who hypothesized that following the launch of a campaign for a medical condition, information seeking behavior pertaining to the condition would increase as well1. They used data from Google Trends (Google Inc., CA) on 4 different diseases (including Colon Cancer) to conclude that the use of infoveillance shows promise as an alternative and inexpensive solution for disease surveillance and health care campaign evaluation. Cancer awareness has massively benefitted from rapid growth of internet and mass media and the evolution of social marketing strategies around the promotion of healthcare2,3. This has resulted in the development of cancer oriented societies, websites, public campaigns and specifically earmarked Cancer Awareness Months (CAMs) directed at changing public attitudes towards prevention, screening, treatment and informed decision making. However, despite the significant impact of cancer awareness on screening of preventable cancers4, the impact of CAMs on cancer-related internet search activity has not been well studied. Breast (BC), Lung (LC) and Colorectal Cancers (CRC) are the leading causes of cancer incidence and mortality among women 5 and have their respective CAMs during October, November and March respectively 6. Using Google Trends, a public web facility of Google Inc. based on Google Search, we compared the relative frequency of search of terms ‘Breast Cancer’,‘Lung Cancer’ and ‘Colon Cancer’ between 1st January 2004 and 31st January 2017 (n=158 months). The program assigns a reference value of 100 for the point of maximum popularity from among the search terms, and provides relative monthly scores for all terms, which we termed interest scores (IS). IS were then compared among cancers for the overall period (n=158 months) and specifically during their CAMs (n=13 months). Within each cancer, IS were then compared during the CAMs (n=13 months) as compared to the remaining months (n=145 months). Parametric and non-parametric analyses were carried out (wherever applicable) using ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests respectively. A p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. We found that BC had higher IS (mean± S.D) than LC and CRC for the entire study period (38.83±14.46 vs14.71 ±4.56 and 11.98±2.13 respectively, P<0.0001*), including a peak IS of 100 in October, 2004. BC also had significantly higher IS during its CAM (October) than the CAMs for LC (November) and CRC (March); 69.92±11.75 vs 15.38±4.54 and 13.53±2.43 respectively, P<0.0001*. While BC (69.92±11.02 vs 36.04±11.02; P<0.0001*) and CRC (13.53±11.84 vs 11.85 ± 2.06; P=0.0036*) had higher IS during their CAMs as compared to other months, LC did not (15.38 ±4.53 vs 14.65±4.57; P=0.3019) (Table 1). We concluded that ongoing campaigns for BC awareness are very effective at driving internet search activity, not only at baseline (2.5-3 times) but even more so also during its CAM (4-5 times) as compared to the other two leading malignancies among women (CRC and LC). Despite having a higher mortality than CRC, the campaign for LC was unable to significantly impact internet search activity during its CAM. Reasons behind the success of the BC awareness campaign in driving internet search activity should be further explored and applied to those for other malignancies such as LC and CRC, which also continue to have high mortality.

  • Flutracking net survey (montage). Source: The Authors / Placeit.net; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL: http://publichealth.jmir.org/2017/3/e48/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System

    Abstract:

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users’ experiences, we maintained a strong focus on “obvious design” and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems.

  • Abuja Street Portrait, Nigeria. Source: Flickr; Copyright: Mark Fischer; URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/fischerfotos/23379499480/; License: Creative Commons Attribution + ShareAlike (CC-BY-SA).

    Body Weight Misperception and Dissatisfaction Among Overweight and Obese Adult Nigerians

    Abstract:

    Background: The increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- and medium-income countries has a negative impact on overall health. Correct perception of one’s body weight is a step in seeking healthy help toward weight reduction in overweight and obese individuals. Objective: This study was carried out to assess the body weight misperception and dissatisfaction among overweight and obese adults in an urban African setting. Methods: This study was part of a larger cross-sectional study that was designed to plan an intervention for overweight and obese adults in an urban African setting. For this study, we randomly selected only overweight and obese adults (≥18 years old) who consented to participate in the study from 15 enumeration areas in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria. We followed the World Health Organization guidelines for conducting community surveys in recruiting overweight and obese participants. We assessed body weight perception and dissatisfaction through their responses to the following: “How do you describe your weight?” and “I feel bad about myself because of my weight.” Data for this study were collected between November 2012 and March 2013. Results: We recruited 567 participants, of whom more than half (n=304, 53.6%) misperceived their weight as either underweight or normal weight, and 61.2% (n=186) of whom were women. The strength of agreement between the actual body mass index and weight perception was very poor (κ=.032, SE .015, P=.04). The strongest predictor of weight perception was sex (female) with an odds ratio of 1.63 (95% CI 1.13-2.35). About 41.1% (n=233) of the participants were dissatisfied with their weight, of whom 30.0% (n=70) were men. Age (young adult) was a predictor of weight dissatisfaction with an odds ratio of 2.37 (95% CI 1.62-3.46). Conclusions: More than half of the participants misperceived their body weight as either underweight or normal weight, and the majority of them were women. More men were not happy with their body weight, and participants in the young adult age group were more dissatisfied with their body weight.

  • Cigarette packs on display in Moscow, 2016. Source: The Authors; Copyright: Ashley Grant; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities

    Abstract:

    Background: The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia—having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world—enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Methods: Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Results: Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions was very good: there were virtually no light boxes (1.0%, 5/489); banners or shelf liners were observed in 30.5% (149/489) of supermarkets/convenience stores; approximately 7.4% (36/489) of venues were still displaying products in a powerwall. In wave 2, 41.3% (100/242) of kiosks continued to sell tobacco. Conclusions: Russia’s compliance with POS bans was excellent. Remaining compliance issues are largely with the use of cigarette brand colors or images used in banners or shelf liners; this type of infraction is more difficult to enforce as inspectors need to be deeply familiar with tobacco industry products and marketing practices. A sizable proportion of kiosks continue to sell tobacco post restrictions.

  • Young men in Bali designing HIV prevention. Source: The Authors; Copyright: Dinar Lubis; URL: http://publichealth.jmir.org/2017/3/e53/; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Vulnerable Youth as Prosumers in HIV Prevention: Studies Using Participatory Action Research

    Abstract:

    Background: Stigma, voicelessness, and legislative and rights barriers, coupled with top-down decision making, are the common experiences of vulnerable youth populations that limit their opportunities to participate in vital health promotion efforts such as HIV prevention. Objective: To consider new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Methods: Drawing on research with vulnerable youth in Busoga, Uganda; Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; Bangkok, Thailand; and Bali, Indonesia, we explore current youth participation, in theory and practice, while considering new opportunities arising from a digital society for youth to creatively shape HIV prevention. Results: Collaborative commons and prosumer models are defined as people employing new technology to codesign toward a common goal. Within the context of a diminishing role of the traditional institution and the rise of digitized networks, such models offer exciting new directions for youth as electronic health promotion prosumers to participate in difficult challenges such as HIV prevention in the 21st century. Conclusions: It is time for institutions to embrace such opportunities, especially in areas where access to technology is widening, while continuing to champion youth and advocate for supportive social environments.

  • Source: Wikimedia Commons; Copyright: EPop; URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zero_alcool_pendant_la_grossesse.svg; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    The Use of Facebook Advertising for Communicating Public Health Messages: A Campaign Against Drinking During Pregnancy in New Zealand

    Abstract:

    Background: Social media is gaining recognition as a platform for delivering public health messages. One area attracting attention from public health researchers and professionals is Facebook’s advertising channel. This channel is reported to have a broad reach and generate high user engagement with the disseminated campaign materials. However, to date, no study has examined the communication process via this channel which this study aimed to address. Objective: The specific objectives of the study were to (1) examine user engagement for a public health campaign based on the metadata provided by Facebook, (2) analyze comments generated by the campaign materials using text mining, and (3) investigate the relationship between the themes identified in the comments and the message and the sentiments prevalent in the themes that exhibited significant relationships. Methods: This study examined a New Zealand public health pilot campaign called “Don’t Know? Don’t Drink,” which warned against drinking alcohol during pregnancy. The campaign conveyed the warning through a video and three banner ads that were delivered as news feeds to women aged 18-30 years. Thematic analysis using text mining performed on the comments (n=819) identified four themes. Logistic regression was used to identify meaning-making themes that exhibited association with the message. Results: The users’ engagement was impressive with the video receiving 203,754 views. The combined likes and shares for the promotional materials (video and banner ads) amounted to 6125 and 300, respectively. The logistic regression analysis showed two meaning-making themes, namely, risk of pregnancy (P=.003) and alcohol and culture (P<.001) exhibited association with the message. The sentiment analysis carried out on the two themes revealed there were more negative than positive comments (47% vs 28%). Conclusions: The user engagement observed in this study was consistent with previous research. The numbers reported for views, likes, and shares may be seen as unique interactions over the fixed period of the campaign; however, survey research would be required to find out the true evaluative worth of these metadata. A close examination of the comments, employing text mining, revealed that the message was not accepted by a majority of the target segment. Self-identity and conformity theories may help to explain these observed reactions, albeit warrant further investigations. Although the comments were predominantly negative, they provide opportunities to engage back with the women. The one-way communication format followed in this campaign did not support any two-way engagement. Further investigation is warranted to establish whether using a two-way communication format would have improved the acceptability of such public health messages delivered via social media. The findings of this study caution using a one-way communication format to convey public health messages via Facebook’s advertising channel.

  • Source: Pexels; Copyright: Fancycrave; URL: https://www.pexels.com/photo/background-blur-chat-colors-433617/; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Attitudes of Crohn’s Disease Patients: Infodemiology Case Study and Sentiment Analysis of Facebook and Twitter Posts

    Abstract:

    Background: Data concerning patients originates from a variety of sources on social media. Objective: The aim of this study was to show how methodologies borrowed from different areas including computer science, econometrics, statistics, data mining, and sociology may be used to analyze Facebook data to investigate the patients’ perspectives on a given medical prescription. Methods: To shed light on patients’ behavior and concerns, we focused on Crohn’s disease, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and the specific therapy with the biological drug Infliximab. To gain information from the basin of big data, we analyzed Facebook posts in the time frame from October 2011 to August 2015. We selected posts from patients affected by Crohn’s disease who were experiencing or had previously been treated with the monoclonal antibody drug Infliximab. The selected posts underwent further characterization and sentiment analysis. Finally, an ethnographic review was carried out by experts from different scientific research fields (eg, computer science vs gastroenterology) and by a software system running a sentiment analysis tool. The patient feeling toward the Infliximab treatment was classified as positive, neutral, or negative, and the results from computer science, gastroenterologist, and software tool were compared using the square weighted Cohen’s kappa coefficient method. Results: The first automatic selection process returned 56,000 Facebook posts, 261 of which exhibited a patient opinion concerning Infliximab. The ethnographic analysis of these 261 selected posts gave similar results, with an interrater agreement between the computer science and gastroenterology experts amounting to 87.3% (228/261), a substantial agreement according to the square weighted Cohen’s kappa coefficient method (w2K=0.6470). A positive, neutral, and negative feeling was attributed to 36%, 27%, and 37% of posts by the computer science expert and 38%, 30%, and 32% by the gastroenterologist, respectively. Only a slight agreement was found between the experts’ opinion and the software tool. Conclusions: We show how data posted on Facebook by Crohn’s disease patients are a useful dataset to understand the patient’s perspective on the specific treatment with Infliximab. The genuine, nonmedically influenced patients’ opinion obtained from Facebook pages can be easily reviewed by experts from different research backgrounds, with a substantial agreement on the classification of patients’ sentiment. The described method allows a fast collection of big amounts of data, which can be easily analyzed to gain insight into the patients’ perspective on a specific medical therapy.

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  • Near-real-time surveillance using poison control data: the Alerting System for Illness Related to Consumption of Shellfish (ASIRCS)

    Date Submitted: Sep 11, 2017

    Open Peer Review Period: Sep 15, 2017 - Sep 29, 2017

    Background: Data from poison control centres have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in...

    Background: Data from poison control centres have the potential to be valuable for public health surveillance of long-term trends, short-term aberrations from those trends, and poisonings occurring in near-real-time. This information can enable long-term prevention via programs and policies and short-term control via immediate public health response. Over the past decade there has been increasing use of poison control data for surveillance in the United States, Europe, and New Zealand, but this resource still remains widely underused. Objective: The British Columbia (BC) Drug and Poison Information Centre (DPIC) is one of five such services in Canada, and it is the only one nested within a public health agency. Here we aim to demonstrate how DPIC data are used for routine public health surveillance in near-real-time using the case study of its Alerting System for Illness Related to Consumption of Shellfish (ASIRCS). Methods: Every hour, a connection is opened between the DPIC Visual Dot Lab Enterprise (VDLE) database and the R, statistical computing environment. This platform is used to extract, clean and merge all necessary raw data tables into a single data file. ASIRCS automatically and retrospectively scans a 24-hour window within the data file for new cases related to illnesses from shellfish consumption. Detected cases are queried following a list of criteria that include: the caller location; exposure type; reasons for the exposure; and a list of keywords searched in the clinical notes. The alert generates a report that is tailored to the needs of food safety specialists, who then assess and respond to detected cases. Results: The ASIRCS system alerted on 79 cases between January 2015 and December 2016, and retrospective analysis found 11 cases that were missed. All cases were reviewed by food safety specialists and 46 (58.2 %) were referred to designated regional health authority contacts for follow-up. Of the 33 (41.8%) cases that were not referred to health authorities, some were missing follow-up information, some were triggered by allergies to shellfish, and some were triggered by shellfish-related keywords appearing in the case notes for non-shellfish-related cases. There was a 100% decrease in the number of cases with missing follow-up information from 2015 to 2016. Conclusions: The surveillance capacity is evident within poison control data as shown from the novel use of DPIC data for identifying illnesses related to shellfish consumption in BC. Further development of surveillance programs could improve and enhance response to public health emergencies related to acute illnesses, chronic diseases, and environmental exposures.

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