JMIR Publications

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JMIR Public Health and Surveillance

A multidisciplinary journal that focuses on the intersection of public health and technology, public health informatics, mass media campaigns, surveillance, participatory epidemiology, and innovation in public health practice and research.


Journal Description

JMIR Public Health & Surveillance (JPHS, Editor-in-chief: Travis Sanchez, Emory University/Rollins School of Public Health) is a PubMed-indexed, peer-reviewed sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the top cited journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175). JPH is a multidisciplinary journal with a unique focus on the intersection of innovation and technology in public health, and includes topics like health communication, public health informatics, surveillance, participatory epidemiology, infodemiology and infoveillance, digital disease detection, digital public health interventions, mass media/social media campaigns, and emerging population health analysis systems and tools. 

We publish regular articles, reviews, protocols/system descriptions and viewpoint papers on all aspects of public health, with a focus on innovation and technology in public health.

Apart from publishing traditional public health research and viewpoint papers as well as reports from traditional surveillance systems, JPH was one of the first (if not the only) peer-reviewed journal which publishes papers with surveillance or pharmacovigilance data from non-traditional, unstructured big data and text sources such as social media and the Internet (infoveillance, digital disease detection), or reports on novel participatory epidemiology projects, where observations are solicited from the public.  

Among other innovations, JPH is also dedicated to support rapid open data sharing and rapid open access to surveillance and outbreak data. As one of the novel features we plan to publish rapid or even real-time surveillance reports and open data. The methods and description of the surveillance system may be peer-reviewed and published only once in detail, in a  "baseline report" (in a JMIR Res Protoc or a JMIR Public Health & Surveill paper), and authors then have the possibility to publish data and reports in frequent intervals rapidly and with only minimal additional peer-review (we call this article type "Rapid Surveillance Reports"). JMIR Publications may even work with authors/researchers and developers of selected surveillance systems on APIs for semi-automated reports (e.g. weekly reports to be automatically published in JPHS and indexed in PubMed, based on data-feeds from surveillance systems and minmal narratives and abstracts).

Furthermore, duing epidemics and public health emergencies, submissions with critical data will be processed with expedited peer-review to enable publication within days or even in real-time.

We also publish descriptions of open data resources and open source software. Where possible, we can and want to publish or even host the actual software or dataset on the journal website.


Recent Articles:

  • Source: Flickr; Copyright: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Know Your Epidemic, Strengthen Your Response: Developing a New HIV Surveillance Architecture to Guide HIV Resource Allocation and Target Decisions


    To guide HIV prevention and treatment activities up to 2020, we need to generate and make better use of high quality HIV surveillance data. To highlight our surveillance needs, a special collection of papers in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance has been released under the title “Improving Global and National Responses to the HIV Epidemic Through High Quality HIV Surveillance Data.” We provide a summary of these papers and highlight methods for developing a new HIV surveillance architecture.

  • Source: Pxhere; Copyright: Pxhere; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Trust in Health Information Sources: Survey Analysis of Variation by Sociodemographic and Tobacco Use Status in Oklahoma


    Background: Modern technology (ie, websites and social media) has significantly changed social mores in health information access and delivery. Although mass media campaigns for health intervention have proven effective and cost-effective in changing health behavior at a population scale, this is best studied in traditional media sources (ie, radio and television). Digital health interventions are options that use short message service/text messaging, social media, and internet technology. Although exposure to these products is becoming ubiquitous, electronic health information is novel, incompletely disseminated, and frequently inaccurate, which decreases public trust. Previous research has shown that audience trust in health care providers significantly moderates health outcomes, demographics significantly influence audience trust in electronic media, and preexisting health behaviors such as smoking status significantly moderate audience receptivity to traditional mass media. Therefore, modern health educators must assess audience trust in all sources, both media (traditional and digital) and interpersonal, to balance pros and cons before structuring multicomponent community health interventions. Objective: We aimed to explore current trust and moderators of trust in health information sources given recent changes in digital health information access and delivery to inform design of future health interventions in Oklahoma. Methods: We conducted phone surveys of a cross-sectional sample of 1001 Oklahoma adults (age 18-65 years) in spring 2015 to assess trust in seven media sources: traditional (television and radio), electronic (online and social media), and interpersonal (providers, insurers, and family/friends). We also gathered information on known moderators of trust (sociodemographics and tobacco use status). We modeled log odds of a participant rating a source as “trustworthy” (SAS PROC SURVEYLOGISTIC), with subanalysis for confounders (sociodemographics and tobacco use). Results: Oklahomans showed the highest trust in interpersonal sources: 81% (808/994) reported providers were trustworthy, 55% (550/999) for friends and family, and 48% (485/998) for health insurers. For media sources, 24% of participants (232/989) rated the internet as trustworthy, followed by 21% of participants for television (225/998), 18% for radio (199/988), and only 11% for social media (110/991). Despite this low self-reported trust in social media, 40% (406/991) of participants reported using social media for tobacco-related health information. Trust in health providers did not vary by subpopulation, but sociodemographic variables (gender, income, and education) and tobacco use status significantly moderated trust in other sources. Women were on the whole more trusting than men, trust in media decreased with income, and trust in friends and family decreased with education. Conclusions: Health education interventions should incorporate digital media, particularly when targeting low-income populations. Utilizing health care providers in social media settings could leverage high-trust and low-cost features of providers and social media, respectively.

  • Source: JMIR Publications / Smartmockups; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Associations of Topics of Discussion on Twitter With Survey Measures of Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behaviors Related to Zika: Probabilistic Study in the...


    Background: Recent outbreaks of Zika virus around the world led to increased discussions about this issue on social media platforms such as Twitter. These discussions may provide useful information about attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of the population regarding issues that are important for public policy. Objective: We sought to identify the associations of the topics of discussions on Twitter and survey measures of Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, not solely based upon the volume of such discussions but by analyzing the content of conversations using probabilistic techniques. Methods: Using probabilistic topic modeling with US county and week as the unit of analysis, we analyzed the content of Twitter online communications to identify topics related to the reported attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors captured in a national representative survey (N=33,193) of the US adult population over 33 weeks. Results: Our analyses revealed topics related to “congress funding for Zika,” “microcephaly,” “Zika-related travel discussions,” “insect repellent,” “blood transfusion technology,” and “Zika in Miami” were associated with our survey measures of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors observed over the period of the study. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that it is possible to uncover topics of discussions from Twitter communications that are associated with the Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of populations over time. Social media data can be used as a complementary source of information alongside traditional data sources to gauge the patterns of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in a population.

  • Demonstrating and celebrating diversity of LGBT peoples and communities. Source: The Foundation for AIDS Research; Copyright: The Foundation for AIDS Research; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Population Size Estimation of Gay and Bisexual Men and Other Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Social Media-Based Platforms


    Background: Gay, bisexual, and other cisgender men who have sex with men (GBMSM) are disproportionately affected by the HIV pandemic. Traditionally, GBMSM have been deemed less relevant in HIV epidemics in low- and middle-income settings where HIV epidemics are more generalized. This is due (in part) to how important population size estimates regarding the number of individuals who identify as GBMSM are to informing the development and monitoring of HIV prevention, treatment, and care programs and coverage. However, pervasive stigma and criminalization of same-sex practices and relationships provide a challenging environment for population enumeration, and these factors have been associated with implausibly low or absent size estimates of GBMSM, thereby limiting knowledge about the dynamics of HIV transmission and the implementation of programs addressing GBMSM. Objective: This study leverages estimates of the number of members of a social app geared towards gay men (Hornet) and members of Facebook using self-reported relationship interests in men, men and women, and those with at least one reported same-sex interest. Results were categorized by country of residence to validate official size estimates of GBMSM in 13 countries across five continents. Methods: Data were collected through the Hornet Gay Social Network and by using an a priori determined framework to estimate the numbers of Facebook members with interests associated with GBMSM in South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Mauritania, The Gambia, Lebanon, Thailand, Malaysia, Brazil, Ukraine, and the United States. These estimates were compared with the most recent Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and national estimates across 143 countries. Results: The estimates that leveraged social media apps for the number of GBMSM across countries are consistently far higher than official UNAIDS estimates. Using Facebook, it is also feasible to assess the numbers of GBMSM aged 13-17 years, which demonstrate similar proportions to those of older men. There is greater consistency in Facebook estimates of GBMSM compared to UNAIDS-reported estimates across countries. Conclusions: The ability to use social media for epidemiologic and HIV prevention, treatment, and care needs continues to improve. Here, a method leveraging different categories of same-sex interests on Facebook, combined with a specific gay-oriented app (Hornet), demonstrated significantly higher estimates than those officially reported. While there are biases in this approach, these data reinforce the need for multiple methods to be used to count the number of GBMSM (especially in more stigmatizing settings) to better inform mathematical models and the scale of HIV program coverage. Moreover, these estimates can inform programs for those aged 13-17 years; a group for which HIV incidence is the highest and HIV prevention program coverage, including the availability of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), is lowest. Taken together, these results highlight the potential for social media to provide comparable estimates of the number of GBMSM across a large range of countries, including some with no reported estimates.

  • Study logo. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Yoshimi Fukuoka; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Objectively Measured Baseline Physical Activity Patterns in Women in the mPED Trial: Cluster Analysis


    Background: Determining patterns of physical activity throughout the day could assist in developing more personalized interventions or physical activity guidelines in general and, in particular, for women who are less likely to be physically active than men. Objective: The aims of this report are to identify clusters of women based on accelerometer-measured baseline raw metabolic equivalent of task (MET) values and a normalized version of the METs ≥3 data, and to compare sociodemographic and cardiometabolic risks among these identified clusters. Methods: A total of 215 women who were enrolled in the Mobile Phone Based Physical Activity Education (mPED) trial and wore an accelerometer for at least 8 hours per day for the 7 days prior to the randomization visit were analyzed. The k-means clustering method and the Lloyd algorithm were used on the data. We used the elbow method to choose the number of clusters, looking at the percentage of variance explained as a function of the number of clusters. Results: The results of the k-means cluster analyses of raw METs revealed three different clusters. The unengaged group (n=102) had the highest depressive symptoms score compared with the afternoon engaged (n=65) and morning engaged (n=48) groups (overall P<.001). Based on a normalized version of the METs ≥3 data, the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) evening peak group (n=108) had a higher body mass index (P=.03), waist circumference (P=.02), and hip circumference (P=.03) than the MVPA noon peak group (n=61). Conclusions: Categorizing physically inactive individuals into more specific activity patterns could aid in creating timing, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity interventions for women. Further research is needed to confirm these cluster groups using a large national dataset. Trial Registration: NCT01280812; (Archived by WebCite at

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: Isa Karakus; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Examining Influences of Parenting Styles and Practices on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors in Latino Children in the United States: Integrative Review


    Background: Research indicates that parents influence their children’s physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) through their parenting styles and practices. Objective: The objectives of this paper were to evaluate existing research examining the associations between parenting styles, parenting practices, and PA and SB among Latino children aged between 2 and 12 years, highlight limitations of the existing research, and generate suggestions for future research. Methods: The method of this integrative review was informed by methods developed by Whittemore and Knafl, which allow for the inclusion of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews Meta-Analyses guidelines, five electronic academic databases (PubMed, SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, and CINAHL) were searched for peer-reviewed, full-text papers published in English. Of the 641 unique citations identified, 67 full-text papers were retrieved, and 16 were selected for review. Results: The majority of the 16 reviewed studies were conducted with predominantly Mexican American or Mexican immigrant samples, and only 1 study examined the association between parenting styles and Latino children’s PA and SB. Most (n=15) reviewed studies assessed the influence of parenting practices on children’s PA and SB, and they provide good evidence that parenting practices such as offering verbal encouragement, prompting the child to be physically active, providing logistic support, engaging and being involved in PA, monitoring, and offering reinforcement and rewards encourage, facilitate, or increase children’s PA. The examined studies also provide evidence that parenting practices, such as setting rules and implementing PA restrictions due to safety concerns, weather, and using psychological control discourage, hinder, or decrease children’s PA. Conclusions: Because this review found a very small number of studies examining the relationship between parenting styles and Latino children’s PA and SB, additional research is needed. Given that the majority of reviewed studies were conducted with predominantly Mexican American or Mexican immigrant samples, additional research examining parenting styles, parenting practices, and PA and SB among multiethnic Latino groups is needed to design interventions tailored to the needs of this ethnically diverse population group.

  • Source: Pixabay; Copyright: 27707; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Functional Knowledge of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis for HIV Prevention Among Participants in a Web-Based Survey of Sexually Active Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men...


    Background: Awareness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention is increasing, but little is known about the functional knowledge of PrEP and its impact on willingness to use PrEP. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the functional knowledge of PrEP among a sample of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in a Web-based survey of sexually active MSM. Methods: Men at least 18 years old, residing in the United States, and reporting sex with a man in the previous 6 months were recruited through social networking websites. PrEP functional knowledge included the following 4 questions (1) efficacy of consistent PrEP use, (2) inconsistent PrEP use and effectiveness, (3) PrEP and condom use, and (4) effectiveness at reducing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Ordinal logistic regression was used to identify respondent characteristics associated with PrEP functional knowledge. In a subsample of participants responding to HIV prevention questions, we compared willingness to use PrEP by response to PrEP functional knowledge using logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, race and ethnicity, and education level. Results: Among 573 respondents, PrEP knowledge was high regarding adherence (488/573, 85.2%), condom use (532/573, 92.8%), and STIs (480/573, 83.8%), but only 252/573 (44.0%) identified the correct efficacy. Lower functional PrEP knowledge was associated with minority race/ethnicity (P=.005), lower education (P=.01), and not having an HIV test in the past year (P=.02). Higher PrEP knowledge was associated with willingness to use PrEP (P=.009). Younger age was not associated with higher PrEP functional knowledge or willingness to use PrEP. Conclusions: PrEP knowledge was generally high in our study, including condom use and consistent use but may be lacking in higher risk MSM. The majority of respondents did not correctly identify PrEP efficacy with consistent use, which could impact motivation to seek out PrEP for HIV prevention. Targeted messaging to increase PrEP knowledge may increase PrEP use.

  • Taking PrEP. Source: Image created by the Authors; Copyright: Thiago Silva Torres; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Awareness of Prevention Strategies and Willingness to Use Preexposure Prophylaxis in Brazilian Men Who Have Sex With Men Using Apps for Sexual Encounters:...


    Background: Geosocial networking (GSN) smartphone apps are becoming the main venue for sexual encounters among Brazilian men who have sex with men (MSM). To address the increased HIV incidence in this population, preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) was recently implemented in the Brazilian public health system in the context of combined HIV prevention. Objective: This study aimed to describe the characteristics of MSM using GSN apps for sexual encounters, their awareness of prevention strategies, and willingness to use PrEP. Methods: This study was an online cross-sectional study conducted in 10 Brazilian state capitals from July 1 to July 31, 2016. The questionnaire was programmed on SurveyGizmo and advertised in two GSN apps used by MSM to find sexual partners (Hornet and Grindr). Inclusion criteria were >18 years of age, cisgender men, with an HIV-negative status. Eligible individuals answered questions on: demographics; behavior; and knowledge, preferences, and willingness to use PrEP, nonoccupational postexposure prophylaxis (nPEP), HIV self-testing (HIVST), and condoms. Logistic regression modeling was performed to assess the factors associated with daily oral PrEP willingness. Results: During the study period, 8885 individuals provided consent and started the questionnaire. Of these, 23.05% (2048/8885) were ineligible, 6837 (6837/8885, 76.94%) initiated, and 5065 (5065/8885, 57.00%) completed the entire questionnaire and were included in the present analysis. Median age was 30 years (interquartile range: 25-36), most self-declared as MSM (4991/5065, 98.54%), white (3194/5065, 63.06%), middle income (2148/5065, 42.41%), and had 12 or more years of schooling (3106/5062, 61.36%). The majority of MSM (3363/5064, 66.41%) scored >10 points (high risk) on The HIV Incidence Risk for MSM Scale, but only 21.39% (1083/5064) had a low perceived likelihood of getting HIV in the next year. Daily use of apps for sex was reported by 35.58% (1798/5054). Most MSM (4327/5065, 85.43%) reported testing for HIV at least once in their lifetime and 9.16% (464/5065) used nPEP in the previous year. PrEP, nPEP, and HIVST awareness was reported by 57.89% (2932/5065), 57.39% (2907/5065), and 26.57% (1346/5065) of participants, respectively. Half of all respondents (2653/5065, 52.38%) were willing to use daily oral PrEP, and this finding was associated with higher numbers of male sexual partners (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.26, 95% CI 1.09-1.47), condomless receptive anal intercourse (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44), sex with HIV-positive partner versus no HIV-positive partner (one HIV-positive partner: AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.11-1.67), daily use of apps for sexual encounters (AOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.17-1.87), high and unknown perceived likelihood of getting HIV in the next year (AOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47-2.02 and AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.13-1.70), sexually transmitted infection diagnosis (AOR 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.51), stimulant use (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.07-1.43), PrEP awareness (AOR 1.48, 95% CI 1.30-1.70), and unwillingness to use condoms (AOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.33). Conclusions: Our results evidenced high-risk scores in the studied population, suggesting the importance of PrEP use. Those individuals presenting risky sexual behaviors were more willing to use PrEP. Nonetheless, only 58% (2932/5065) of individuals had heard about this prevention strategy. Efforts to increase awareness of new prevention strategies are needed, and mobile health tools are a promising strategy to reach MSM.

  • Web-based map survey (montage). Source: The Authors /; Copyright: JMIR Publications; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Web-Based Survey Application to Collect Contextually Relevant Geographic Data With Exposure Times: Application Development and Feasibility Testing


    Background: Although studies that characterize the risk environment by linking contextual factors with individual-level data have advanced infectious disease and substance use research, there are opportunities to refine how we define relevant neighborhood exposures; this can in turn reduce the potential for exposure misclassification. For example, for those who do not inject at home, injection risk behaviors may be more influenced by the environment where they inject than where they live. Similarly, among those who spend more time away from home, a measure that accounts for different neighborhood exposures by weighting each unique location proportional to the percentage of time spent there may be more correlated with health behaviors than one’s residential environment. Objective: This study aimed to develop a Web-based application that interacts with Google Maps application program interfaces (APIs) to collect contextually relevant locations and the amount of time spent in each. Our analysis examined the extent of overlap across different location types and compared different approaches for classifying neighborhood exposure. Methods: Between May 2014 and March 2017, 547 participants enrolled in a Baltimore HIV care and prevention study completed an interviewer-administered Web-based survey that collected information about where participants were recruited, worked, lived, socialized, injected drugs, and spent most of their time. For each location, participants gave an address or intersection which they confirmed using Google Map and Street views. Geographic coordinates (and hours spent in each location) were joined to neighborhood indicators by Community Statistical Area (CSA). We computed a weighted exposure based on the proportion of time spent in each unique location. We compared neighborhood exposures based on each of the different location types with one another and the weighted exposure using analysis of variance with Bonferroni corrections to account for multiple comparisons. Results: Participants reported spending the most time at home, followed by the location where they injected drugs. Injection locations overlapped most frequently with locations where people reported socializing and living or sleeping. The least time was spent in the locations where participants reported earning money and being recruited for the study; these locations were also the least likely to overlap with other location types. We observed statistically significant differences in neighborhood exposures according to the approach used. Overall, people reported earning money in higher-income neighborhoods and being recruited for the study and injecting in neighborhoods with more violent crime, abandoned houses, and poverty. Conclusions: This analysis revealed statistically significant differences in neighborhood exposures when defined by different locations or weighted based on exposure time. Future analyses are needed to determine which exposure measures are most strongly associated with health and risk behaviors and to explore whether associations between individual-level behaviors and neighborhood exposures are modified by exposure times.

  • Source: Image created by Authors; Copyright: Jordan Lee Tustin; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY).

    Internet Exposure Associated With Canadian Parents’ Perception of Risk on Childhood Immunization: Cross-Sectional Study


    Background: There is a large presence of provaccination and antivaccination content on the Internet. The Internet has been identified as an important source for parents to seek and share vaccine information. There are concerns that parental fears or hesitancy on childhood immunizations are increasing due to the popularity of social media and exposure to online antivaccination sentiment. No other studies have investigated the association between seeking vaccine information online and Canadian parents’ perception of risk on childhood immunization. Objective: We aimed to investigate the potential association between seeking vaccine information on the Internet and Canadian parents’ perception of risk on childhood immunization in order to quantify the perceived association and increase our understanding on the impact of the Internet to help guide public health interventions. Methods: We analyzed this association in two population samples: a self-selecting Web-based sample of Canadian parents recruited through Facebook (n=966) and a population-based sample of parents recruited by random digit dialing (RDD; n=951). The outcome was parental perception of vaccine safety on a seven-point ordinal scale from “not safe” to “extremely safe.” An ordinal regression model was used to investigate if Internet information seeking on childhood vaccination predicted parental perception of vaccine safety. Results: After adjusting for income level, Internet reliability, age of parent, and region, the odds of perceiving vaccines as less safe rather than more safe were 1.6 times higher (95% CI 1.3-2.1) for parents who used the Internet to search for vaccination information compared to parents who did not search the Internet in the Web-based sample, and 2.0 times higher (95% CI 1.6-2.5) in the population-based RDD sample. Conclusions: The results suggest the Internet is significantly associated with Canadian parents’ negative perception of vaccine risk. Governmental and scientific sectors should consider the development and implementation of Web-based vaccine interventions to promote confidence in immunization.

  • Source:; Copyright: StockSnap; URL:; License: Public Domain (CC0).

    Monitoring Freshman College Experience Through Content Analysis of Tweets: Observational Study


    Background: Freshman experiences can greatly influence students’ success. Traditional methods of monitoring the freshman experience, such as conducting surveys, can be resource intensive and time consuming. Social media, such as Twitter, enable users to share their daily experiences. Thus, it may be possible to use Twitter to monitor students’ postsecondary experience. Objective: Our objectives were to (1) describe the proportion of content posted on Twitter by college students relating to academic studies, personal health, and social life throughout the semester; and (2) examine whether the proportion of content differed by demographics and during nonexam versus exam periods. Methods: Between October 5 and December 11, 2015, we collected tweets from 170 freshmen attending the University of California Los Angeles, California, USA, aged 18 to 20 years. We categorized the tweets into topics related to academic, personal health, and social life using keyword searches. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests examined whether the content posted differed by sex, ethnicity, and major. The Friedman test determined whether the total number of tweets and percentage of tweets related to academic studies, personal health, and social life differed between nonexam (weeks 1-8) and final exam (weeks 9 and 10) periods. Results: Participants posted 24,421 tweets during the fall semester. Academic-related tweets (n=3433, 14.06%) were the most prevalent during the entire semester, compared with tweets related to personal health (n=2483, 10.17%) and social life (n=1646, 6.74%). The proportion of academic-related tweets increased during final-exam compared with nonexam periods (mean rank 68.9, mean 18%, standard error (SE) 0.1% vs mean rank 80.7, mean 21%, SE 0.2%; Z=–2.1, P=.04). Meanwhile, the proportion of tweets related to social life decreased during final exams compared with nonexam periods (mean rank 70.2, mean 5.4%, SE 0.01% vs mean rank 81.8, mean 7.4%, SE 0.01%; Z=–4.8, P<.001). Women tweeted more often than men during both nonexam (mean rank 95.8 vs 76.8; U=2876, P=.02) and final-exam periods (mean rank 96.2 vs 76.2; U=2832, P=.01). The percentages of academic-related tweets were similar between ethnic groups during nonexam periods (P>.05). However, during the final-exam periods, the percentage of academic tweets was significantly lower among African Americans than whites (χ24=15.1, P=.004). The percentages of tweets related to academic studies, personal health, and social life were not significantly different between areas of study during nonexam and exam periods (P>.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that the number of tweets related to academic studies and social life fluctuates to reflect real-time events. Student’s ethnicity influenced the proportion of academic-related tweets posted. The findings from this study provide valuable information on the types of information that could be extracted from social media data. This information can be valuable for school administrators and researchers to improve students’ university experience.

  • A group of 407 women of diverse ages and backgrounds who attend Universal Medicine events and show substantially better health and BMI than the general population. Source: Iris Pohl; Copyright: Iris Pohl; URL:; License: Creative Commons Attribution + NoDerivatives (CC-BY-ND).

    Comparative Analysis of Women With Notable Subjective Health Indicators Compared With Participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health:...


    Background: At least six communities with unusually good health and longevity have been identified, but their lifestyles aren’t adopted widely. Informal evidence suggests that women associated with Universal Medicine (UM), a complementary medicine health care organization in Eastern Australia and the United Kingdom with normal lifestyles, also have several unusual health indicators. Objective: Our objective was to determine how UM participants compared with women in the Australian population at large on a variety of health indicators. Methods: In an Internet survey conducted July to September 2015, a total of 449 female UM participants from 15 countries responded to 43 health indicator questions taken from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). Results: Survey responses revealed large positive differences in mental and physical health when compared with the ALSWH respondents, except for abnormal Pap test and low iron history. Differences and corresponding effect size estimates (Cohen d; ≥0.8 is a high difference) included body mass index (BMI; 10.8), stress level (0.64), depression (4.4), summary physical (4.6) and mental health (5.1), general mental health (7.6), emotional (4.5) and social functioning (4.9), vitality (11.9), and general health (10.1), as well as lower incidences of diabetes, hypertension, and thrombosis (P<.001 each). Neither education levels nor country of residence had predictive value. Age did not predict BMI. Conclusions: The women’s responses notably claim substantially lower levels of illness and disease than in the general Australian population. Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12617000972325; https://www.anzctr. (Archived by WebCite at 6wEDDn45O)

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